Comparative culture

Silk Road



The Mongol Empire


1 The Mongol Empire


The Mongol Empire was acquired in three generations. Genghis Khan conquered Khwarizm in Central Asia. Ogodei, his third son and successor as Great Khan, conquered Jin in northern China and sent his nephew Batu on a western campaign, which went well into Eastern Europe. After Ogodei’s death, Batu secured near autonomy for his rule over the Golden Horde by helping the descendants of Touli to become Great Khan. Kubilai conquered China and established its Yuan Dynasty. His brother Hulagu conquered Persia and founded Ilkhan. The dates in the following incomplete lineage of Temujin refer to the reigns of the Great Khan.



2. Genealogy of the Mongol Royal House


The Mongol Empire opened up east-west communication as never before. Around 1260, Marco Polo left Venice and travelled by land to China, where he served under Kubilai Khan. He left China in 1292 and returned via sea route.



3 A Mongol Passport



4. Letters from Guyuk Khan to the Pope. (Vatican Archives)



Three images of the Mongols:



5. Mongol siege warfare, illustration of a history of the Mongols written by Rashi-al-Din, office in the Ilkhanate who died in 1318.



6. Kubilai Khan bestowing a golden tablet to the Polo brothers, from a fourteenth century manuscript of Polo’s travel.



7. Kubilai Khan hunting. Chinese painting by Liu Kuantao.